A loaf of bread made in the first century AD, which was discovered at Pompeii, preserved for centuries in the volcanic ashes of Mount Vesuvius. The markings visible on the top are made from a Roman bread stamp, which bakeries were required to use in order to mark the source of the loaves, and to prevent fraud. (via Ridiculously Interesting)
(sigh) I’ve seen these before, but this one’s particularly beautiful.
I feel like I’m supposed to be marveling over the fact that this is a loaf of bread that’s been preserved for thousands of years, and don’t get me wrong, that’s hella cool. But honestly, I’m mostly struck by the unexpected news that “bread fraud” was apparently once a serious concern.
Bread Fraud was a huge thing, Bread was provided to the Roman people by the government - bakers were given grain to make the free bread, but some of them stole the government grain to use in other baked goods and would add various substitutes, like sawdust or even worse things, to the bread instead. So if people complained that their free bread was not proper bread, the stamp told them exactly whose bakery they ought to burn down.
Bread stamps continued to be used at least until the Medieval period in Europe. Any commercially sold bread had to be stamped with an official seal to identify the baker to show that it complied with all rules and regulations about size, price, and quality. This way, rotten or undersized loaves could be traced back to the baker. Bakers could be pilloried, sent down the streets in a hurdle cart with the offending loaf tied around their neck, fined, or forbidden to engage in baking commercially ever again in that city. There are records of a baker in London being sent on a hurdle cart because he used an iron rod to increase the weight of his loaves, and another who wrapped rotten dough with fresh who was pilloried. Any baker hurdled three times had to move to a new city if they wanted to continue baking.
If you have made bread, you are probably familiar with a molding board. It’s a flat board used to shape the bread. Clever fraudsters came up with a molding board that had a little hole drilled into it that wasn’t easily noticed. A customer would buy his dough by weight, and then the baker would force some of that dough through the hole, so they could sell and underweight loaf and use the stolen dough to bake new loafs to sell. Molding boards ended up being banned in London after nine different bakers were caught doing this. There were also instances of grain sellers withholding grain to create an artificial scarcity drive up the price of that, and things like bread.
Bread, being one of the main things that literally everyone ate in many parts of the world, ended up with a plethora of rules and regulations. Bakers were probably no more likely to commit fraud than anyone else, but there were so many of them, that we ended up with lots and lots of rules and records of people being shifty.
Check out Fabulous Feasts: Medieval Cookery and Ceremony by Madeleine Pelner Cosman for a whole chapter on food laws as they existed in about 1400. Plus the color plates are fantastic.
THIS IS IMPORTANT, PLEASE DON’T FEED THESE TREATS TO YOUR DOGS
My mom bought these recently and they have made both of my dogs really sick. She later saw an article online about duck and sweet potato treats made in China(these fit the description) killing dogs and the FDA is doing nothing about it. Apparently over the last few years 600 young, healthy dogs have died after eating these treats and I don’t want anymore to suffer or be killed so please spread the word and don’t let your dogs have these!
This is VERY important! A lot of these animal treats made in China are killing dogs and cats. It’s not that the FDA isn’t doing anything about it, it’s simply that they don’t know why it’s happening.
They are conducting investigation after investigation, but the ingredients used in the food killing dogs (and 10 cats) is used in many different brands and companies that have been shipped, all from overseas. At this rate, a total recall and knowledge of where it’s coming from has proven very difficult. Just recalling one brand in particular will not solve the problem. Please conduct a thorough search about any brand of treats that have been made in China should you pick them up for your pet before you feed it to them. If all else fails, just buy local.
Please PLEASE be aware that this isn’t only happening to dogs, but some cat treats, too!
This may save lives!!
- Easy and very effective
- Requires nothing but your body
- Includes attack
Very useful to know, pass and share please.
I don’t mean to impose a personal favour on you guys, but I really would like to ask that everyone who follows me reblog this.
I don’t think I made it very clear but last month I was sexually assaulted by someone who I thought was my friend (I don’t want to talk about it don’t ask), and it’s… really fucked with my head.
Had I known this a month ago I would have been able to get away.
So, essentially, I’m really pleading with you to reblog this so everyone who follows you doesn’t get stuck in the same position I was with no way out.
I mean again I don’t want the point of this to be my sob story or whatever but if you could reblog this it would seriously mean a lot
and im asking to all of my followers who see this post in your dashboard to please press play to this video, you never know when this is gonna be useful, PLEASE DON’T IGNORE IT.
This is one of the first moves I was taught in Krav Maga, and it is one of the most effective.
It took me about a half hour to get down with practice, but once you get it, it’s an intuitive movement.
Please pass this along, it will save lives.
Please reblog this.